D. B. Gurung - Life and Letters
Thursday, 26 April 2012
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      Written, collected and edited by Ram Prasad Prasainram_parsain@yahoo.com   One of contemporaneous signatures in the field of Nepali writers in English, D. B. Gurung was born in a middle-class Gurkha family in Kathmandu. His family hailed to Kathmandu originally from Rumjatar, the... Read More...
Doing creative writing is not like running a news article based on a fact - D. B. Gurung
Friday, 27 April 2012
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      (Mr. Ram Prasad Prasain and his colleague Mr. Keshar Bahadur Balampaki met and talked about various facades of Nepalis Writing in English with D. B. Gurung. They prepared the questionnaires and emailed them to the novelist; and he answered them. It is written and personal interview. –... Read More...
Ancient Kapilvastu was Pretty Much Where The Tilaurakot Ruins are Today
Saturday, 04 August 2012
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[On the basis of the Ashokan edicts at Paderia and Nigliva and their location along with reports of Rohan L. Jayetilleke (Article in The Himalayan Voice, March 22,2010) and Robin Coningham of Bradford University we can accept the location of Kapilavastu in Nepal Tarai zone. In this context the... Read More...
Litterateur Gothale no more
Tuesday, 14 December 2010
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Famous playwright and novelist Govinda Bahadur Malla 'Gothale' passed away on Monday. He was suffering from asthma and other bodily ailments since long. Malla, 88, died at around 12 in the afternoon at the Himal Hospital located in Kamalpokhari where he was undergoing treatment since Dec 5. Born in... Read More...
2013 Monsoon Floods in Nepal and India: What happened and what could have been done?
Tuesday, 25 June 2013
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[This article is extracted from ICIMOD official website. To view full text with pictures, please visit the source : http://www.icimod.org/?q=10932. Editor]   While the world is waking up to the news of the horrific scale of the recent flood disaster in the Mahakali basin of Nepal and Uttarakhand... Read More...
Oh, Subru! Hi, Humanity
Monday, 06 May 2013
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IMAGE                                                                 — Ram Prasad Prasain   Retiring the tiresome day He bid and told me, Wrapping up the all conversations, “Sir, don’t send my body to my country” “Why?”  I was... Read More...
Roman to Unicode
Monday, 15 April 2013
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Nepal – Brief Introduction.html

Nepal, संघिय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal) is a Landlocked Himalayan country which is situated between the Republic of India (East, West and South sides) and the People’s Republic of China (North Side). Nepal occupies 1,47,181 Sq. Km Area. Nepal is multi lingual ( Nepali, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Magar, Sherpa, Limbu, Awadhi and 100 of others) and multi religious (Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim and others) country. Major part of Nepal is covered by beautiful hills and mountains. More than 240 peaks over 6,000 m (including the world’s highest peak, Mt. Everest, Sagarmatha in Nepali, 8,848m height) and 8 peaks over 8,000 m are located in Nepal and border line with China.

The landscape of Nepal on northern territory is very attractive covered with sloppy terrain and snow covered hills. The southern part consists of Plain terai region (Madhes in Nepali) which is covered with greenery (green plants, forest, crops and herbal plants).Nepal has many tourist destinations such as Pokhara Valley (also called as heaven on the Earth), Kathmandu valley, Arun Valley, Mustang, Ghandruk, Gosainkunda, Lumbini (birth place of Gautam Buddha, the profounder of Buddhism) etc. Nepal’s topographic diversity is main attraction for the tourist (visitors) visiting Nepal.

Nepal is rich in flora and fauna. The diversity of different animals and plants found in Nepal is itself uniqueness in the world. This diversity has been caused due to the variation of topography while moving north from south which ranges from low plain land to the high hills covered with snow. This diversity is also facilitated due to the diversity of climate (tropical, subtropical, temperate, subarctic and arctic zones). These local flora and fauna are preserved in National parks (Chitwan, Bardiya, Suklaphata etc.), wildlife reserves and conservation areas which are also major tourist destinations of Nepal.

   

Lumbini - Lord Buddha's Birth.html

 

 

 

Information about Lumbini:  Location: Lumbini is situated in the Southwestern Nepal amid Tarai. Climate: Summer 44°C to 28°C, winter 26°C to 7°C Best time to visit: October to March Nearest International Airport: Tribhuwan International Airport Kathmandu Nearest Domestic Airport: Lumbini Airport Must Visits: Buddha Vihar and Ashoka Pillar Language spoken: Nepalese, Awadhi and Maithali STD Code: +977-71 Significance: Birthplace of Lord Buddha

Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha. It is situated 230 km away from Kathmandu in Rubandehi District of Southern Terai (lowland), at an altitude of 600 ft. above sea level. Lumbini, respected by all Buddhists. In 1998, Lumbini was declared as the Fountain of world peace and the pilgrimage for all the peace loving people of the world.

Some important places in Lumbini:

The Lumbini Garden : This is the site marked by a certain stone pillar erected by the Indian Emperor Ashoka at about 245 B.C. The most important discovery in this place is a stone marked to suggest the exact birthplace of Buddha.

Mayadevi Temple : This temple, dedicated to the mother of lord Buddha- Maya Devi, was excavated a few years ago. Many sculptures and carving in which the figures and designs are only slightly projecting from their background are seen here.

Pushkarni pond : This is the pond where Mayadevi is said to have had a bath before giving birth to Buddha.

Ramagram : It is believed to be the maternal home of Buddha. This is where we can see the biggest stupa, with important relics. It is said that it was built around 600 B.C.

Lumbini has many new monasteries occupied by different nations. Some notable ones are: 

The Myanmar temple was built with the contribution from Burmese Buddhist. The monastery is an attractive big white structural monument with a golden pinnacle soaring into the sky. 

The China temple, which is a very beautiful pagoda styled temple with many prayer and meditation cells.

The Korean Temple is a beautifully set temple having many remarkable images of Buddha.

Besides these, there are others like the Nepal Buddhist Temple and the Dharmaswami Buddhist monastery. Other countries like Japan , Sri Lanka , Thailand , Vietnam , etc. are also contributing to build more temples and monasteries.
 
How to Reach Lumbini? Lumbini is located in South-western Nepal amidst unending stretches of Tarai. Being the birthplace place of Buddha anda major Buddhist tourism attraction, the place is easily accessible. It is well connected with the network of roads and airlines.
 
Transportation:  Lumbini is connected to the other parts of Nepal by both roadways and airways. Nepal Transport Corporation buses run from every city in the length and breadth of Nepal to Lumbini. Nevertheless, the better option is to travel by Cabs. It requires a lot of dickering before the rowdy cab drivers will settle for a reasonable fare. In case of airlines, Nepal has as many as 15 domestic airlines that provide their service to commuters. Most of these aircrafts are 20-seater Dakotas that are very comfortable and safe. Some bigger aircrafts such as Airbus 320 also ply on major routes such as Pokhra-Lumbini and Kathmandu-Lumbini.
 
By Air: Lumbini does not have an international airport therefore you have no option but to break your journey at Kathmandu and take another flight
 
Lumbini Tourist Attractions:

Lord Buddha was born in Lumbini, in southwestern Nepal, nearly twenty-five hundred years ago. Since then, the city has always remained the focal point of Buddhism. Today's Lumbini is a small sleepy town in the southwestern Tarai plains of Nepal, where the ruins of the old city can still be seen. The followers of both Hinyana and Mahayana sects of Buddhism revere Lumbini. The restored gardens and surroundings of Lumbini have the remains of many of the ancient Stupas and monasteries. A large stone pillar that is said to be erected by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 250 BC bears an inscription about the birth of the Buddha.

The most important attraction of Lumbini is the holy temple of Maya Devi. The temple has a stone sculpture of Maya Devi in labor pain. The image shows her holding the branch of a tree while Buddha is getting birth. The temple is very popular among the women having some or other fertility problem. One cannot miss the heart-melting cries of such women as they pray for an off spring at this place. To the south of the temple is a pond where Queen Maya Devi is said to have bathe and given her son his first purification bath that is compulsory in Hinduism.

The main complex have large stretches of Bo Tree plantations. This the same tree that is shown in the sculpture in the Maya Devi temple. Another variety of the same plant is known as Banyan; the same plant under which Buddha got enlightened. The Bo plantation and a newly planted forest nearby lend an air of tranquility to the surrounding. Lumbini is now being developed under the Master Plan of the Lumbini Development Trust, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the restoration of Lumbini and its development as a pilgrimage site.

Kapilvastu, near Lumbini, is a prime archeological site. Though very little remains of what was once a flourishing town, the place is a must visit. The place has the ruins of the palace where Lord Buddha spent his formative years. The archeological works that had been done in this area had to pass through various roadblocks including financial constraint. The archeologists had dug out as many as 14 different layers of human habitation in this area. The oldest among these dates back to 8th century before Christ. The place is a must for archeological and historical buffs! Apart from its religious and historical significance, Lumbini offers cultural insights into the village life of southwestern Nepal. The must catch event in this part of Nepal is the weekly communal Bazaar. This bazaar is organized every Monday therefore try to coincide your visit with that. The weekly bazaar looks like the scene taken straight out of the Arabian fables. Villagers come from miles around to buy grains, spices, pottery, jewelry, saris and various other items. With colorful merchandise spread out under the Mango trees and the air perfumed with incense, the place looks like the ocean of humanity. You can buy souvenirs for your dear ones and side-by-side witness the local life in Lumbini. After centuries of neglect from travelers, backpackers and archeologists, Lumbini is finally scaling the chart. Serious preservation work has only just been started and efforts are being done on the war footing to save this historical marvel.
 
(This Article has been Extracted from Kapilvastu Day Blog posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on November 19, 2010. - Admin)

 

 

 

Tihar - The Festival Of Lights.html

\\Tihar is biggest festival of lights or flowers or joys. This festival falls after 15 days of end of Dashain. It generally falls during the month of October. This festival is celebrated by people using different names such as Dipawali, Bhai Tika,  Laxmi Puja etc. This festival is also known as festival of lights or festival of flowers or festival of sisterhood or brotherhood. It is celebrated in five-days and these days are called Panchak or Yama Panchak. During this festival, different animals such as crow, dog, and cow are worshipped. People worship the Hindu Goddess of Fortune or Wealth (Goddess Laxmi) and enjoy cooking delicious meals (as roti) at home, fly kites, decorate homes and streets with lights and garlands (Mala in Nepali) and brothers and sisters shop and exchange their gifts (Saugat or Sagun) along with blessing (Ashish). Main importantly, brothers and sisters exchange a special temporary mark of color on forehead (Tika in Nepali) at the ending day of festival. This day of Tihar festival is popularly known as Bhai Tika day. This day has cultural importance as sisters wish a long life to their brothers (Bhai). Culturally, if anyone do not have own sister or brother, can accept from close relatives. If they have no choice, they can find from their friends or neighbors. This relation is considered as of relation of child born by same parents.
 
 
 
Tihar is celebrated in 5 days. Each day is special as there is worshipping of different animals or Goddess. First day is called as day of Kag (crow). This day is also called as Kag Tihar. In this day, all members of the family separate a portion of their meal and offer for Kag. Sisters offer worship for Kag before taking meal. Kags are considered as the messenger of the Lord of Death (Yam). Hence, people worship Kag and offer meal to keep them happy.
 
Second day is the day of Kukur (Dog). This day is named as Kukur Tihar. In this day sisters worship Kukur offering delicious meal, put red tika on their forehead and flower garland around their necks. Kukur guards home of people, hence, people honor Kukur by worshipping. (Please, do not use the word KUKUR for any Nepalese, this word is reserved for Dog only. Using this word may invite critical situation for you.) Kukur is also culturally worshipped because it is believed that, when Yudhisthir went to heaven with his brothers and family after the great war of Mahabharat, Kukur was only one which reached alive to heaven along with him even his brave brothers were died on the way.
 
The third day is the day of Gai (Cow). This day is also called as Gai Tihar. Culturally, gai is regarded as mother and called Gaumata (Mother Cow). It is regarded as sacred animal and worshiped as mother. In Hinduism, Gauhatya (killing of Cow) is considered as sin. During this day, Gai is worshipped by putting tika on her forehead, flower garland around her neck and offering good meals. People honor cow as she provides milk to people which is regarded as Amrit (Nutritious and holly liquid). People spray drops of Gaumutra (cow’s urine) to purify their body and home. Gaumutra is also considered as the medicine of various diseases.
 
During night, people worship Goddess Laxmi (Goddess of wealth) and it is called Laxmi Puja. During this day the entire nation illuminates with lights. During Laxmi Puja, Pictures and icons of Laxmi Devi (Goddess) are placed and worshiped. It is performed using flowers, incense, oil lamps, color-powders, bell and money (both notes and coins). The symbolic foot-print on the floor is made from the entrance of the home to the Puja Kotha (worshipping room) and Dhansar (room where people store their assets). It is believed that, if you worship Goddess Laxmi with devotion, then your life will be prosperous and happy with the Kripa (blessing) of Goddess Laxmi. After Laxmi Puja, group of female sing Bhailo or Bhailini door to door of community. Bhailini song offer joy, prosperity and blessing to the household where it is played. The song may be different from place to place depending on geography. But it must start with Bhailini or end with Bhailiram.
 
The fourth day is the day of Goru (oxen). This day is also called as Goru Tihar and people do Gobardhan puja (a symbolic mountain made of cow dung). This day Goru is worshipped as they are used to till lands for agriculture and pull the carts. Newari community (local ethnic group of Kathmandu Valley and other part of the country) perform Mahapuja. Mahapuja is the worshipping of self. This day is also celebrated as New Year as Nepal Sambat (Local time scale) starts from this day. They celebrate it offering Vintuna (regard and respect, compare Namaste) to each other. During day time, group of male sing Deusi song. Deusi song always ends with Deusi or Deosire or Deosuray depending geography.
 
It is the fifth or final day and also known as Bhai Tika Day. During this day, sisters give tika (a colored powder placed on once's forehead), and mala (a necklace of flowers) to brothers along with wishes for long life and prosperity. During Bhai Puja (worship of brothers) brothers sit on a floor while sisters perform their puja following a traditional ritual of circling brothers three times dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher, putting oil in brother's ears and hairs, breaking of walnuts by sisters and giving Tika to brothers. During Tika, sister use rice paste and put it on forehead of brother using her thumb. Then sister dabs seven colors on top of the rice paste base using her fingers. After tika, flower garland is put around brother's neck. Then brothers fallow the same fashion to give Tika to sisters. Now brothers and sisters exchange their gifts. Sisters give a special gift known as Sagun, which is made of dried fruits and nuts, candies, and roti, while brothers give gifts such as clothes or money to sisters. During Tika, sisters pray for their brother's long life to the Hindu God of Death, Yam. It is believed that breaking Okhar (walnut) and circling oil drips around brothers by sisters, keeps yam away from brothers and they have long life.
 
(Pictures taken from different internet sources are the properties of respective owners)

Lumbini’S Latest Discovery: T.html

 

 

 

Articles Taken from LUMBINI magazine, May 1998, volume 1:

 

Lumbini’s Latest Discovery: the Birth Spot of the Buddha
Ven. Bhikshu Sudarshan Mahasthavir

 

 Lumbini (Lummini) 2 is the birthplace of Sakyamuni Buddha. At the age of 29, the Buddha-to-be (Bodhisattva) renounced in Kapilavastu (present-day Tilaurakot), and at the age of 35, he became the Buddha. For forty-five years the Buddha wandered teaching the Dhamma. At the age of 80, he arrived at Upavattana where between two Sal trees (Yamakasal), he lay down in the Mahaparinibban position with his head pointing to the north. The Venerable Ananda, the Buddha’s personal secretary (upatthapaka) for twenty-five years, asked the Buddha: “Generally, at the end of every rains-retreat (vassavasa), venerable monks from everywhere come to have an audience with you and I always enable them to have this opportunity. What will happen after the Tathagata’s (Buddha) demise (mahaparinibbana)?”The Buddha answered: “Persons of devotion will continue to visit and see the four holy places: the place where Tathagata was born; the place where he attained enlightenment; the place where he turned the wheel of Dhamma; and the place where he passed away (or attained anupadise mahaparinibbana).” In fact, the actual meaning of making the pilgrimage to these four places was to have an audience with the Buddha and to attempt to acquire mental serenity.

In the Mahaparinibbana Sutta3 the exact names of the four holy places are not mentioned, but in other sources of the Pali Tipitaka, such as the Suttanipata,4 Buddhavamsa5, Thera-padana 6 in the Jataka commentaries,7 in ancient Sanskrit literature such as the Lalitavistara,8 or the Buddhacaritta 9 epic, there are detailed descriptions of Lumbini (as well as mentions of the names of the other three holy places). Moreover, there is an inscription in the Mauryan Brahmi script which attests to the fact that Lumbini is the birthplace of Sakyamuni Buddha. Obviously, Lumbini’s epigraphic evidence is of enormous significance, since in the other holy places no Mauryan inscriptions giving such names of Sambodhi Mandap, Isipatana Migadava or Kusinara have been discovered.

In Lumbini, there are five lines of Brahmi script engraved on the pillar erected by King Asoka (249-250 B.C.). In the second line there are two compound words hidabudhejate sakyamuniti, which translate as “Here Sakyamuni Buddha was born.” Also, the two first words in the fourth line are hidabhagavamjateti lumminigame, which translate as “As the Bhaga-vam 10 was born here, so in Lumbini village…”

This Mauryan inscription definitively puts an end to all previous guesses, disputes and debates on the subject of the Buddha’s birth spot. It also establishes that the Buddha was a historical person in contrast to the beliefs that the Buddha was a deity descended from the sun, etc.

This Asokan pillar must have been seen by many of the Nepalese inhabitants of the Terai before Major Jaskarana Singh11 saw it in 1893 A.D., and before General Khadga Shamsher was encouraged to do further excavation by Dr Alois A. Fuhrer on December 1, 1896. It was then that the significance of the pillar was made known outside Nepal.

This inscription is the earliest paleographic evidence for the Nepali name, Sakyamuni Buddha, and for the name of the place, Lumbini. Furthermore, in relation to the compound lumminigame ?(in Lumbini village) of the Asokan inscription, archaeological excavations carried out by His Majesty’s Government of Nepal have led to the discovery of the site of Lumbini on the southern side of the pillar (where, at the present, the Lumbini police station stands).

According to the Kunalavadana ?of Dibyavadana, having led King Asoka into the Lumbini jungle, the Venerable Upagupta pointed with his right hand and said: “Oh, Great King, Here the Buddha (bhagavam) was born (asmin maharaja paradese bhagavan jatah)!” 12 Thereafter, King Asoka made an offering of one hundred thousand gold coins and established the first pagoda (cetiya).13 This fact is also briefly noted in another chapter of the Dibyavadana, the Ashokavadana. From the fact of the village’s existence it might be that even the cetiya was erected in Lumbini by those local inhabitants who were already skilled in the establishment of villages.

In addition, the description given in the account entitled Shui-Ching-Chu 14 dating from before the fourth century recorded that in Lumbini: (1) the Asoka tree which had been planted over and over using the old trunk that had been grasped by Mayadevi during Siddhartha’s birth was still alive; (2) a statue of the Mayadevi grasping the Asoka tree and giving birth to the prince Siddhartha which was made out of lapis lazuli was placed beneath this tree; (3) devotees offered sweet-smelling flowers at the spot marking the place where Siddhartha’s feet first touched the earth; and (4) King Asoka had shielded the imprint of Siddhartha’s feet with lapis lazuli on both sides, and had them covered over with one long slab of lapis lazuli.

According to the travel account writen by Fa-Hsien (5 century), 15 the tree which was grasped by Mayadevi stood 20 paces north of the pond where she took her bath. However, Hiuen Tsiang (7 century) 16 noted that a decayed Asoka tree stood 24/25 steps north from the Shakyapauskarani pond of Lavani or Lumbini. Although Hiuen Tsiang mentions the Asokan pillar and the horse capital on its top, nothing is said about an inscription. Probably, at the time of his visit, the part of the pillar which was inscribed was buried underground. Otherwise Hiuen Tsiang would have surely described the Lumbini inscription just as he noted the Asokan pillar at Kusinara which records the Buddha’s demise.

Thus, among the travel documents written by visitors to Lumbini, the account given in the Shui-Ching-Chu is significant as it supports the findings made during the joint excavation carried out by the Lumbini Development Trust, His Majesty’s Government’s Archaeological Department, and the Japanese Buddhist Federation.

On February 4, 1996 the Honourable Sher Bahadur Deuba, the Prime Minister of Nepal, officially announced that the joint excavation carried out by Nepalese and Japanese archaeologists under the advice and guidance of an international team of experts had led to the re-discovery of the sacred spot where the Sakyamuni Buddha first touched the earth in Lumbini. This official government announcement had been preceded a year earlier by a report in the Japanese daily Asahi made on July 26, 1995.

Babu Krishna Rijal, 17 the chief archaeologist associated with this excavation, states that “the recent excavation at the base of sanctum sanctorum of Mayadevi temple in Lumbini has revealed the rough block of sand conglomerate stone which is of unusual in size and put within a boxchamber by Asoka Maurya in 3rd century B.C.” Kosh Prasad Acharya,18 the chief archaeological officer of Department of Archaeology of Nepal states that it is “a piece of rock (conglomerate?) has been put here in the centre of this chamber. Seven layers of bricks are put to make [a] platform for this piece of rock”. Professor Satoru Uesaka, 19 the chief Japanese archaeologist who is directly associated with the excavation, declares in his report that it is “a piece of natural rock (a hard conglomerate with the dimensions of 70cm x 40cm x 10cm with axis running in the south to north direction and containing a lot of pebbles) it (sic) found at the center at the top of the discovered level. This rock is likely a landmark stone.” According to the decision made by the 2nd Archaeological Expert’s Meeting held at Lumbini on 16 March 1995, Professor Ahmad Hasan Dani, a prominent Pakistani archaeologist, and Professor Krishna Deva, another prominent Indian archaeologist congratulated the Excavating team for “their greatest (sic) historic discovery of the exact spot of Lord Buddha’s birth as mentioned in Asokan Pillar set up by Asoka who visited Lumbini in 249 B.C.” Confirming the significance of the discovery, Dani further states: “the recent excavations are very important because they could discover the exact location of the place of Buddha’s birth in Lumbini”.

In this connection, I am of the opinion that, because of this archaeological discovery, there can be an end to the disputes and debates which have existed for nearly century, from the work done by Pischel20 (1903) to that of Norman21 (1994), on the Asokan term silavigadabhica kalapita found in the Lumbini inscription.

Notes:

1 Ven. Bhikshu Sudarshan is Vice-President of All Nepal Bhikkhu Association and lecturer at Tribhvan University. A reputed scholar on Lumbini 2 As in Asokan pillar 3 Digha Nikaya 1989: 153-4 4 Sutta Nipata 1990:140 5 Buddhavamsa 1959:330 6 Sutta Pitaka 1959:152 7 Jatakaatthakatha 1951:40-41 8 Lalitavistara 1992:178, 180-1 9 Buddhacaritta 1972:2 10 Bhagavam is in the sense of annihilator of greed, hatred and delusion 11 Deo 1968:1 12 Dibyavadana 1959:248 13 Dibyavadana 1959:251 “caityam ca pratisthapya raja prakantah” 14 Petech 1950:35-36 15 Beal 1981:l 16 Beal 1981:II:24 17 Rijal n.d.:2 18 Rijal n.d.:2 19 Rijal n.d.:6 20 Pischel 1903:724-34 [I-II] 21 Norman 1994:227-37

References

 

  • Asokan inscription of Lumbini.
  • A press release of announcement by Rt. Hon’ble Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba on 4 February 1996.
  • Acharya, Kosh Prasad (n.d.) A brief report on the archaeological findings in the Maya Devi Temple, Lumbini.
  • Anderson, D. and Smith, H. 1990. Sutta Nipata (new edition). Oxford: Pali Text Society
  • Beal, Samuel 1981. Si-Yu-ki Buddhist records of the western world: Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D.629). Delhi: Motilal Benarasidas.
  • Deo, S.B. 1968. Archaeological Investigations in The Nepal Terai: 1964. Kathmandu:the Department of Archaeology, HMG.
  • Department of foreign language publication 1991. Travel document to West of Maha Thang dynasty (Maha Thang Rajvamsa Kal Me Pakshim Ki Tirthayatraka Vritranta) in Hindi. Beijing. <
  • Dharma Rakshit, Bhikshu (ed.) 1951. Jatakaatthakatha. Varanasi: Bharatiya Jnanapitha, Kashi.
  • Kashayap, J. Bhikhu 1959. The Apadana (II)-Buddhavamsa-Cariyapitaka: [Khuddaka nikaya, vol. VII]. Nalanda-Devanagari-Pali-Series. Bihar: Pali Publication Board.
  • Kashayap, J. Bhikhu 1959. Therapadana (Sutta Pitaka). Nalanda-Devanagari-Pali-Series.
  • Bihar: Pali Publication Board.
  • News on Asahi daily newspaper of Japan (in Japanese), 16 July 1995.
  • Norman, Kenneth R. 1994. ‘A note on Silavigadabhica in Asoka’s Rummindei inscription’ in The Buddhist Forum vol. III. London: University of London.
  • Petech, L. 1950. Northern India according to the Shui-Ching-Chu. vol.II Serie Orientale Roma II, Rome: IsMEO.
  • Pischel, R. 1903. Die Inscrift von Paderiya (The Paderiya Inscription). SKPAW.
  • Recommendations of the First Experts’ Meeting by Lumbini Development Trust and Japanese Buddhist Federation held at Lumbini Sacred Garden on 26 February 1994.
  • Rhys Davids, T.W. and Rhys Davids C.A.F. 1989. ‘Mahaparinibbana Sutta’ in Dialogues of the Buddha: Translated from the Pali of the Digha Nikaya. Part II. (4th Edition). London: Pali Text Society.
  • Rijal, Babu Krishna (n.d.) The Discovery of Buddha?s Birth spot in Lumbini.
  • ________. 16 March 1995 An observation Note.
  • ________.1983. Archaeological activities in Lumbini 1978-83. HMG.
  • Shastri, Mahanta Shri Ramchandra Das. 1972. The Buddha Caritta. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan.
  • Shastri, Shantibhikshu (trans.) 1992. Lalitavistara. Lucknow: Uttara Pradesh Hindi Samsthan (in Hindi).
  • Smith, V. A. 1905. ‘The rummindei inscription, hitherto known as the Padariya inscription of Asoka’, in The Indian Antiquary vol. XXXIV.
  • Uesaka, Satoru (prepared) 10 December 1992. The 1st Phase Work Implementation Plan for the Maya Devi Temple Restoration Project in Lumbin.i
  • Uesaka, Satoru (n.d.) Archaeological research report on Maya Devi Temple excavation project.
  • Vaidya, P.L. Dr. (ed.) 1959 Dibyavadana Buddhist Sanskrit Text No 20. Bihar: The Mithila Institute.

 

(This article has been taken from http://www.lumbini.org.uk/may_1998_1.html :Admin)

 

 

 

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