D. B. Gurung - Life and Letters
Thursday, 26 April 2012
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      Written, collected and edited by Ram Prasad Prasainram_parsain@yahoo.com   One of contemporaneous signatures in the field of Nepali writers in English, D. B. Gurung was born in a middle-class Gurkha family in Kathmandu. His family hailed to Kathmandu originally from Rumjatar, the... Read More...
Doing creative writing is not like running a news article based on a fact - D. B. Gurung
Friday, 27 April 2012
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      (Mr. Ram Prasad Prasain and his colleague Mr. Keshar Bahadur Balampaki met and talked about various facades of Nepalis Writing in English with D. B. Gurung. They prepared the questionnaires and emailed them to the novelist; and he answered them. It is written and personal interview. –... Read More...
Ancient Kapilvastu was Pretty Much Where The Tilaurakot Ruins are Today
Saturday, 04 August 2012
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[On the basis of the Ashokan edicts at Paderia and Nigliva and their location along with reports of Rohan L. Jayetilleke (Article in The Himalayan Voice, March 22,2010) and Robin Coningham of Bradford University we can accept the location of Kapilavastu in Nepal Tarai zone. In this context the... Read More...
Litterateur Gothale no more
Tuesday, 14 December 2010
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Famous playwright and novelist Govinda Bahadur Malla 'Gothale' passed away on Monday. He was suffering from asthma and other bodily ailments since long. Malla, 88, died at around 12 in the afternoon at the Himal Hospital located in Kamalpokhari where he was undergoing treatment since Dec 5. Born in... Read More...
2013 Monsoon Floods in Nepal and India: What happened and what could have been done?
Tuesday, 25 June 2013
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[This article is extracted from ICIMOD official website. To view full text with pictures, please visit the source : http://www.icimod.org/?q=10932. Editor]   While the world is waking up to the news of the horrific scale of the recent flood disaster in the Mahakali basin of Nepal and Uttarakhand... Read More...
Oh, Subru! Hi, Humanity
Monday, 06 May 2013
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IMAGE                                                                 — Ram Prasad Prasain   Retiring the tiresome day He bid and told me, Wrapping up the all conversations, “Sir, don’t send my body to my country” “Why?”  I was... Read More...
Roman to Unicode
Monday, 15 April 2013
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The Ministerial Declaration.html

13 March 2012

1. We, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations assembled in Marseille, France, on 13 March 2012 at the Ministerial Conference of the 6th World Water Forum, “Time for Solutions”, are determined to address water challenges at all scales. Recognizing the Ministerial Statement and other outcomes of the 5th World Water Forum, held in Istanbul on 16-22 March 2009, and taking account of the contributions of the political, thematic, regional and grassroots and citizenship processes, as well as the inputs collected on the “Platform of Solutions” of the 6th World Water Forum, we therefore express our shared view on the following:

2. Reaffirming Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (the United Nations Program of Action from Rio at the Earth Summit on 3-14 June 1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development on 2-4 September 2002, water is key to peace and stability and central to provide powerful, multifaceted contributions to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development “Rio+20” on “a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication” and “the institutional framework for sustainable development”.

Ensure Everyone’s Well-Being: Accelerate Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation, Expand Sanitation and Deliver on Water and Health

3. Reiterating our commitment to fully achieve the Millennium Development Goals, and following the adoption of United Nations resolutions (A/RES/64/292, A/HRC/RES/15/9, A/HRC/RES/16/2 and A/HRC/RES/18/1) related to the recognition of the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation, we commit to accelerate the full implementation of the human rights obligations relating to access to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation by all appropriate means as a part of our efforts to overcome the water crisis at all levels.

4. We are therefore determined to achieve access to safe drinking water and sanitation for all with the required availability, quality, acceptability, accessibility and affordability, focusing on the most vulnerable and taking into account non-discrimination and gender equality. To improve the situation of the billions of people without access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation, we intend to focus our efforts on local and national planning and coordination, adequate financing and investment, and robust regulatory, monitoring and accountability frameworks, involving all stakeholders.

5. An integrated approach towards sanitation and wastewater management, including collection, treatment, monitoring and re-use, is essential to optimize the benefits and value of water. We need to advance development and utilization of non-conventional water resources, including safe re-use, turning wastewater into a resource, and desalination as appropriate, to stimulate local economies, and help prevent waterborne diseases and the degradation of ecosystems.

6. We need to intensify our efforts to prevent and reduce of water pollution with a view to accelerating access to sustainable sanitation and improving the quality of water resources and ecosystems. We intend to promote a shared, innovative and integrated vision of urban, rural, industrial and agricultural wastewater management, including context-specific targets for the implementation of our actions, in the framework of national legislations, institutions and enforcement mechanisms supported by regional and international cooperation, including the dissemination of relevant technologies and knowledge sharing.

7. Water and sanitation are essential for health and hygiene and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. We are determined to follow up on the resolution on safe drinking water, sanitation and health, adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA64.24), to fight water-related diseases. We intend to mainstream safe drinking water and sustainable sanitation, personal, domestic and collective hygiene, water quality protection and monitoring and warning tools in health strategies and programs. Their elaboration and implementation rely on strengthened, integrated and coherent inter-sectoral policy frameworks and cooperation between all authorities and stakeholders.

8. To contribute to health, hygiene and nutrition, solutions include effective institutional frameworks to operate and maintain existing water and sanitation services and to optimize investment in infrastructure. Integrated processes such as water and sanitation safety plans contribute to better water quality and health risk management. Strong support to community ownership, participation, education and empowerment is also needed to change behavior.

Contribute to Economic Development: Green Economy, Water for Food Security and Water and Energy

9. Water has a critical role in all environmental, social and economic systems and should therefore be recognized as such in economic development in conjunction with its social and environmental benefits. In the framework of sustainable development, the contribution of water to policies towards a green economy should be promoted in a manner which leads to achievement of poverty eradication, growth and job creation while preserving ecosystems and tackling climate change.

10. A new approach to water, food and energy based on a better understanding and more systematic recognition of their inter-linkages in decision-making and planning has the potential to improve the production and sustainable management of these scarce resources. A more efficient use and reduced waste can improve access to water, food and energy. We intend to enhance policy coherence, adapt existing institutional arrangements and establish frameworks to maximize benefits and synergies across sectors.

11. Given the increasing global cross-sectoral demands for and multiple uses of water, sustainable development requires integrated water resources management, which offers a set of principles and processes to facilitate decision-making, planning and investment at all levels. As part of the solution, we encourage the competent authorities, including basin authorities, to adopt the most coherent, equitable and sustainable cross-sector frameworks needed to achieve sustainable development.

12. Water is key for agriculture, rural development, food processing and nutrition, as there can be no food security without water. Therefore water and food security policies need to be integrated, ensuring at the same time an efficient use and protection of water resources. To achieve food security for a growing world population, in a context of global climate change, solutions involve tailor-made and innovative approaches to address the diversity of situations worldwide, taking into consideration the availability and quality of water, soil and land, the level of infrastructure development for rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, the exposure to floods and droughts, the sustainable utilization of water resources and the institutional capacity of the stakeholders concerned.

13. We intend to ensure that water and food security policies meet the needs of the most vulnerable, in particular local communities, smallholder farmers, women and indigenous peoples. Soil and water management needs be promoted to minimize erosion, land degradation and water pollution, with a view to increasing total food supply-chain efficiency “from field to fork”. Solutions include water saving and storage technologies and practices in rain-fed and irrigated areas, reduction of water and food losses and waste, safe re-use of wastewater in agriculture and industry, intensification of the cultivation of traditional and new water-stress tolerant plant varieties and the involvement of food security stakeholders, especially producer organizations, in water policies. The commitment of the G20, D8 and other relevant entities to address water and food security is welcome.

14. Water and energy are increasingly interdependent, as water is one of the major inputs to energy production, technology and industrial processes and energy is needed to produce and distribute water and manage wastewater. We need to address water and energy policies coherently and in harmony with natural water cycles to foster the sustainable and efficient use of water and energy to satisfy access to both for all while favouring growth opportunities and poverty eradication. In this perspective, multi-stakeholder platforms will help harmonize water and energy policies, through multi-sectoral processes in the framework of national sustainable development policies.

15. Accounting for water use in energy production and for energy use in the water and sanitation sector can improve water and energy efficiency. Improved energy efficiency in water and sanitation services, especially for desalinization, and improved water efficiency in agricultural and industrial water use, can contribute to greenhouse gas reduction. We intend to support the Sustainable Energy for All initiative, acknowledge hydro-power, consistent with sustainable development principles, as a viable renewable source of energy for many urban and rural areas and promote the production of “more energy per drop”. Investment in sustainable multi-purpose water storage, the utilization of wastewater as a source of renewable energy as well as the use of renewable energy, such as solar and wind, in water supply and sanitation, need to be promoted.

Keep the Planet Blue: Water in the Rio Conventions, Water-Related Disasters and Water and Urban Development

16. Due to its cross-cutting nature, we need to ensure that water is an integral part of strategies and programmes pertaining to climate change, biodiversity and desertification, leveraging synergies among the 3 Rio Conventions as well as the Ramsar Convention on wetlands, reiterating our commitment made to water. A similar focus on water with respect to other relevant international instruments and fora, related to forests, waste and chemical management, will enable coordinated solutions, especially in terms of knowledge and experience sharing, long-term forecasting and planning, strategic financing and investment and research and policy interactions.

17. We need to build resilience to climate change and variability including through a more flexible and integrated land and water resources management system, by adopting strategies on both adaptation and mitigation, improving water use efficiency, regulation and storage, inland navigation, ecosystem services, wetland, forest and mountain ecosystems restoration and conservation as well as agricultural practices. Solutions to adapt to climate change also include tapping into traditional knowledge and operation, better water demand management, preventive measures and insurance schemes.

18. We recognize that water-related biodiversity and ecosystem services are an integral part of water management infrastructure, as they provide substantive economic, social and environmental returns on investment at all levels. We intend to take actions for the valuation of costs and benefits associated with the protection and sustainable use of water-related ecosystems in all projects. We also intend to encourage investment in water resources as natural capital through appropriate incentives and policies.

19. Due to the increasing adverse impacts of water-related disasters, such as floods and droughts, including man-made disasters, we intend to develop and strengthen national and transboundary disaster prevention and response strategies. Solutions encompass integrated risk management, preparedness, emergency, relief, recovery and rehabilitation plans, which fully take into account water and sanitation, ecosystems protection and restoration, sustainable integrated flood and drought management and infrastructure construction and operation. We recognize the urgent need for multi-stakeholder platforms, preferably at the basin level, for the implementation of joint strategies and the coordination of prevention and response in emergency situations.

20. We need to take into full consideration the central role of water and sanitation requirements in humanitarian and emergency crises in implementing the Humanitarian Reform Principles. Improved coordination on water and sanitation will help develop adequate strategies for a transition from emergency, reconstruction and development towards sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

21. Cities generate opportunities in terms of improved public health, job creation and more efficient use of resources, but pose major challenges for water and sanitation, due to the increasing demand for water and the correlated growing generation of wastewater, storm water and water pollutants, particularly for groundwater, exacerbated by the adverse impacts of climate change. We intend to promote solutions such as improved urban infrastructure and spatial planning processes at the appropriate level and integrated policies among different authorities, taking into account interactions between cities and their rural surroundings. Local and regional authorities are at the front line of such integrated policies and we welcome their participation in and implementation of the “Istanbul Water Consensus” launched at the 5th World Water Forum.

22. Sharing of good practices and lessons learnt, as well as decentralized cooperation, can also help scale up successful experiences and expand public and private partnerships with civil society and economic actors to optimize funding of operation and maintenance of infrastructure and social services, including the development of equitable and sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation services for all. Ensuring a sustainable urban development will hence contribute to improve the living conditions and revenues of urban citizens and peri-urban dwellers.

Conditions of Success: Governance, Cooperation, Financing and Enabling Environment for Water

23. Good water governance requires multi-stakeholder platforms and legal and institutional frameworks enabling the participation of all, including indigenous peoples, marginalized and other vulnerable groups, promoting gender equality, democracy and integrity. Given the particular role of local and regional authorities, in the principle of subsidiarity, we recognize the need to strengthen their capacity to fulfil their responsibilities, as appropriate. Timely and adequate information is crucial to enable all stakeholders to make informed choices and actively participate in the design, implementation and assessment of water and sanitation policies. We need tools and indicators to strengthen water policy monitoring, evaluation and accountability. The development of water information systems will facilitate sharing data and developing scenarios to cope with water challenges.

24. In line with the Principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and taking advantage of the 2013 International Year of Water Cooperation, we are committed to enhance cooperation across and beyond water, taking into account the interests of all riparian States concerned, to foster peace and stability. We appreciate cooperative efforts in the field of transboundary waters. We intend to further promote and encourage coordinated, equitable, reasonable and optimal water utilization in transboundary basins, with a view to deepening mutual trust among riparian countries and achieve sound cooperation. Several of the principles of the relevant international Conventions on water can be useful in this regard.

25. Investment in water provides large returns in economic, social and environmental terms and significantly contributes to sustainable development and poverty eradication, in rural as in urban areas, in the agricultural as in the industrial sector. The importance of prioritizing investment in water and sanitation was underlined in all the regional processes leading to the 6th World Water Forum, in particular to drastically reduce poverty, to explicitly consider equity and poverty alleviation measures, to step up investment to achieve the Millennium Development Goals water and sanitation target and to develop international cooperation in water.

26. Prioritization of water and sanitation in budget allocations and in international cooperation is key as well as effective use of financial instruments. We will promote strategic and sustainable financial planning, through an appropriate mix of contributions from water users, public budgets, private finance, bilateral and multilateral channels. We recognize the need for sustainable and efficient cost recovery, pro-poor and innovative financing mechanisms, such as appropriate payment for ecosystem services, and private investment, in a spirit of solidarity, justice and equity. Contributions on water services provided by local and regional authorities to implement their water-related development cooperation programmes offer an example of innovative financing mechanisms.

27. To build, implement and monitor sound water policies, accurate information and agreed upon evidence rooted in robust scientific knowledge are needed. Taking into account initiatives and reports such as the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS), we expect to foster inclusive partnerships between scientists, policy makers, service providers and other stakeholders, to meet the policy needs and facilitate the science-policy interface, through the provision of state of the art technical tools and methods, the involvement of partners in the formulation of research questions to boost innovation and the dissemination of knowledge and the transfer of technology. Improved coordination on water-related issues within the global system is needed to strengthen and streamline its capacity to provide targeted support to countries.

28. Capacity development, based on partnerships between public authorities, international and non-governmental organizations, utilities, private institutions and communities, is required to face the multiple challenges associated with emerging issues. In this context, we intend to support a helpdesk mechanism to enable exchange of best practices on water laws, regulations, standards and budgets, among and in support of Parliaments. We plan to develop training solutions for different categories of water professionals adapted to the labor market and attractive to the youth, through centers of excellence, associations of water professionals, water operators’ partnerships, water training center networking and twinning. We intend to pay particular attention to awareness and water education for responsible citizens, women and the youth, in order to empower them.

29. Bearing in mind the primary responsibilities of the governments concerned, the specific needs of developing countries, and the least developed among them, require special focus in terms of adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources, capacity building and technology transfer to achieve internationally agreed goals, especially on integrated water resources management and access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

30. We, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations, welcome the results of the 6th World Water Forum, “Time for Solutions”, held in Marseille on 12-17 March 2012, and agree that they must be widely disseminated in relevant fora, including the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development “Rio+20”, focusing on the following priorities:

  • The acceleration of the implementation of human right obligations relating to access to safe drinking water and sanitation for everyone’s well-being and health, in particular for the most vulnerable, and improving wastewater management;
  • The interlinkages between water, energy and food security, ensuring full policy coherence and well-functioning water-related ecosystems, with a view to exploiting synergies and avoiding adverse consequences across sectors, as a basis for sustainable growth and job creation;
  • The incorporation of water in all its economic, social and environmental dimensions in a framework of governance, financing and cooperation, taking into account the progress achieved towards the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 and beyond.

31. We further share the view on the following:

  • The High Level Roundtables held during the Ministerial Conference offer opportunities to identify solutions and commitments to better deliver on water issues;
  • Partnerships undertaken with Parliaments, as well as with local and regional authorities, who play a pivotal political and operational role on these issues, should continue, as appropriate, in connection with the thematic, regional and grassroots and citizenship processes of the 6th World Water Forum;
  • Our water solutions and commitments should, as appropriate, be consolidated and disseminated and their implementation monitored and evaluated, by the competent authorities, so as to benefit the next World Water Fora; and

32. We thank the Government of France, the City of Marseille and the World Water Council for their organization of the Ministerial Conference.

Download the Ministerial Declaration

(source : http://www.worldwaterforum6.org/en/news/single/article/the-ministerial-declaration-of-the-6th-world-water-forum/)

2013 Monsoon Floods In Nepal.html

[This article is extracted from ICIMOD official website. To view full text with pictures, please visit the source : http://www.icimod.org/?q=10932. Editor]


While the world is waking up to the news of the horrific scale of the recent flood disaster in the Mahakali basin of Nepal and Uttarakhand in India, several questions are being asked: what kind of climatic events led to this disaster? Could anything have been done to reduce the loss of life and property? What can we learn from this disaster for the future? In this brief note, we address some of these burning questions.

Mahakali flood disaster

The Mahakali river is a transboundary river between Nepal and India with a catchment area of 14,871 km2. It flows for about 223 km in Nepal and around 323.5 km in India to its confluence with the Karnali River in India. The recent rainfall events in the western and far western regions of Nepal and India affected 20 districts in Nepal and several districts in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The floods and landslides that ensued have left hundreds of people dead or missing and destroyed property worth millions of dollars. While this is not the first event of this kind (see annexes), it is certainly the most severe in the last 50 years and it happened at the beginning of the monsoon when no one was expecting.


Intense rainfall events

The monsoon rains usually hit Central Nepal around 15 June and Far Western Nepal around 20 June. This year, the monsoon quickly engulfed the region (http://www.imd.gov.in/; Figure 2). The real-time monitoring station in Nepal reported 80.4 mm of rain on 16 June and 221.8 mm on 17 June at Dipayal, which adjoins the Mahakali flood disaster area (http://dhm.gov.np/; Figure 3 and Figure 4). Surrounding areas such as Dadeldhura, Dhangadi, and Birendranagar in the Far Western Development Region of Nepal recorded more than 150 mm of rainfall in 24 hours on 17 June 2013. Continuous rain in the upper catchments caused the water level in the Seti river east of the Mahakali to rise from 6.94 m to 11.56 m and 5.53 m to 12.81 m in the Karnali at Chisapani on 17 June, as measured by Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Nepal’s real time network. Unfortunately, there are no real time stations installed by the Department on the Mahakali river. One to three day weather forecasts provided by United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also indicated heavy rainfall on 17 and 18 June on the border of Nepal and India (Figure 5). Cumulative 3 day TRMM rainfall estimates from 16 June to 18 June show heavy rainfall in the flood affected regions of Nepal and India (Figure 6). The discharge in the Mahakali river rose from 139,000 cubic feet per second to 440,716 cubic feet per second on 17 June – well in excess of the flow of 398,000 cubic feet seconds recorded in the 2012 monsoon (http://www.kantipuronline.com/2013/06/18/top-story/massive-floods-in-mahakali-river-6-killed-update/373456/).



While we do not know the full extent of the devastation in Nepal and India, reports are trickling in. In Darchula, in the Far Western Development Region, the flood swept away 77 buildings and displaced 2,500 people (http://www.nepalnews.com/archive/2013/jun/jun18/news12.php). Six were killed in Achham and Baitadi districts and eight are missing in Dhungaad. A reported 150 families have been rendered homeless in Dodhara and Chadani and around 30 families have been affected in Kuda. Four houses in Salyan have been damaged due to a landslide. In Kalikot district, 4 people are dead and 11 missing and 27 families have been displaced. Flood in the Karnali river has affected many villages in the southeast region of Kailali, inundating large areas in Tikapur Municipality and the VDCs of Lalbojhi, Bhajani, Thapapur and Khailad. In Bardiya the floods have intensely affected the Rajapur Tappu region where 2,000 houses were inundated by the Karnali river. Approximately 600 families are still at great risk in Khairichandanpur (http://www.ekantipur.com/2013/06/19/headlines/Monsoon-fury-claims-at-least-20-many-missing/373488/).
The effects were even more devastating in Uttarakhand in India. The flood 
occurred in the peak tourist and pilgrimage season, increasing the number of causalities, missing, and affected. The monsoon arrived 15 days early in Uttarakhand with continuous rainfall between Friday 14 June and Monday 17 June 2013. This resulted in increased water level and flow in the two main rivers, the Alakananda and Bhagirathi. Cloudbursts and landslides at various locations added to the devastation and impact on the lives of the people. Up to 17 June, the rainfall ranged from 50 mm up to 500 mm. Over 60 hours of continuous rain disrupted normal life. According to the Uttarakhand State government's disaster mitigation and management centre, causalities could run into the thousands with about 90 dharamshalas (rest houses for pilgrims) swept away in the floods. Five districts in the state have been affected, more than 550 people have died, thousands are still missing, and over 50,000 are stranded.

What we have learnt from this series of events?

Two main lessons can be drawn from the Mahakali and Uttarakhand flood disasters: The severity of the disaster could have been mitigated with a better end-to-end information system and proper infrastructure planning would have reduced the damage.
Accordingly, we need to:
  • Put in place institutional mechanisms that that can use technological advances in forecasting:
Although some warnings were disseminated by the India Meteorological Organization about the possibility of high to intense rainfall, this information was not transmitted to the 
people at risk. There is a need to strengthen disaster management and preparedness mechanisms, which requires awareness and sensitization at various levels to ensure that early warning information is conveyed to end users well in advance. Advances in technology have made it possible to provide three to four hours warning of such events – which is enough to save lives. We need to develop the institutional mechanisms to fully use such technological advances.
  • Set up more hydrometeorological stations on transboundary rivers:
There is no river-level hydrological monitoring station on the Mahakali river for flood forecasting and early warning. It is recommended that a river monitoring station for early warning be set up jointly by Nepal and India to provide people with some lead-time and improve flood forecasting and management in the basin.


  • Carefully plan infrastructure in the mountains: 
The Hindu newspaper put it succinctly when it said that damage could have been contained through proper policies, especially regarding infrastructure development. The development of infrastructure in mountain areas, whether roads or buildings, is challenging. Many mountain roads are contributing a huge sediment load to our rivers and inviting landslides. Many of the settlements are located along flood plains and have developed over the years, encroaching the river banks and increasing the vulnerability to floods. These settlements include residential homes, offices, resorts and restaurants to name a few. There has been limited or no efforts to move these settlements to higher grounds. In the recent floods, large stretches of road and settlements were washed away stranding thousands of people and raising questions about their design, construction, and monitoring. Infrastructure development in the mountains has to be undertaken with caution and proper planning, and must apply different standards to that in the plains. 
  • There is also a need to investigate whether or not there have been significant land use changes in the basin resulting in increased runoff.

ICIMOD’s role in Disaster Risk Reduction

As a regional knowledge and learning centre serving the eight countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan – ICIMOD is uniquely placed to address issues of a transboundary nature. ICIMOD is focused on improving our understanding of the complex hydrological processes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region and promoting data and information sharing. It seeks to facilitate cooperation on policies, the timely sharing of information, and the proper management of the water resources.
ICIMOD is working for an economically and environmentally sound mountain ecosystem to improve the living standards of mountain people and sustain vital ecosystem services – now and for the future. ICIMOD has chosen to focus on hazards and disasters related to adverse weather and climate conditions, such as high intensity rainfall, glacial lake outburst floods, regional floods, and flash floods. In order to address the risks facing mountain communities and better understand the nature of hazards that might lead to disasters, ICIMOD has outlined a series of activities to be undertaken as part of ‘Disaster risk reduction and community resilience’ including the:
  • assessment of vulnerability of communities and building their resilience to multi-hazards; 
  • assessment of the impact of climate change on ecosystems, natural hazards, and human health; 
  • delivery of training in disaster risk reduction; and 
  • provision of a platform for sharing knowledge and experiences within disaster risk reduction. 
ICIMOD, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and partner countries from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, is working to establish a regional flood information system. Twenty-four hydrometeorological stations have been installed to share real time data to strengthen flood forecasting in four countries. In Nepal, nine hydrometeorological stations have been installed in the Koshi basin and eight in the Kailash Sacred Landscape.
ICIMOD aims to assist mountain people in implementing improved disaster risk reduction at national and regional levels addressing upstream-downstream linkages for saving lives and livelihoods. This is achieved through the implementation of transboundary programmes in partnership with regional partner institutions, exploring the application of satellite-based technologies for disaster risk reduction, supporting networking, facilitating the exchange of experience, and serving as a regional knowledge hub, among other things. Institutional strengthening and capacity building of our partner institutions is also being undertaken to contribute to effective disaster risk reduction. 

Annex 1. Recent floods in Nepal with disaster details 






June 2013

Final report still to be prepared


June 2012

145 families were displaced and 2,200 household were affected by flash floods

Batadi, Achham, Kalikot, Jajrkot, Rukum, Rolpa, Kaski, Tanahu, Makwanpur, Gorkha, Nuwakot, Sindhuli, Sarlahi, Solukhumbu

June 2011

14 districts affected by floods and landslide; 25 deaths; 2 missing; 4 injured; 515 houses destroyed

Dailekh, Jajarkot, Rukum, Palpa, Rupandehi, Parbat, Dhading, Sindhuli, Solukhumbu,

August 2011 

9 districts affected; 65 deaths; 35 missing; 24 injured; 110 houses destroyed


September 2010

60 houses damaged on the Mahakali river

Dadeldhura, Bajura, Achham, Rukum, Kaski, Illam

June–August 2010

6 districts affected; 98 deaths; 8 missing; 29 injured; 2,835 houses destroyed; 39,000 people affected


Annex 2. Recent floods in India with disaster details





Uttarakhand, Shimla,

Himachal Pradesh

June 2013

Final report still to be prepared


Brahmaputra river overflow

July 2012

80 deaths from flood; 16 buried in landslide; 11 missing


July 2012

95 deaths; 12 missing

Uttarkashi district,

Ganga flood

August 2012

34 deaths; 80 houses damaged

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar

September 2011

30 deaths; 10 missing in Brahmani river

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